The global railway sector is on track for steady expansion in the coming years as governments respond to the growing challenges of urbanization and climate change.
Roughly $2.4 trillion worth of railway projects are under construction around the world, with China, the United States, India, Brazil and Britain investing the most money to extend their networks, according to Fitch Group’s BMI (Business Monitor International) Research.
That’s good news for companies that supply rolling stock, infrastructure, technology and after-sale services to the rail industry, such as SKF.
Brussels-based UNIFE (Union des Industries Ferroviaires Européennes), an association representing the European rail manufacturing industry, expects the $170 billion global market to grow 2.7 percent a year between 2014 and 2019.
“Overall favorable megatrends such as population growth, ongoing urbanization, higher mobility demands and environmental concerns will drive the industry’s growth,” UNIFE reports.
Urban rail, which includes metro and light rail, is attracting a significant chunk of the investment in both developed and emerging markets.
The number of metro systems in oper-ation around the world has exploded by more than 80 percent in the past two decades. The International Association of Public Transport (UITP) 2015 report states that 157 cities around the world had a metro system in operation in 2014, compared with 84 in 1990.
That’s set to increase, with more than $623 billion worth of urban rail projects under way. Nearly one-third of that figure is being spent in India and China alone ($70 billion and $115 billion, respectively), BMI Research data shows.
Population growth is a key driver of urban rail investment as more people move to cities, leading to increased traffic congestion, overcrowding on existing public transportation networks and pollution.
It’s only going to get worse. The World Bank estimates that the number of urban dwellers will reach 6 billion by 2045 – 2 billion more than today.
Tougher emission reduction targets are also forcing governments to develop lower- or zero-polluting mass transit systems such as trains, which are the “most emissions-efficient” form of major transportation, according to a report by UIC (International Union of Railways) and the Community of European Railway and Infrastructure Companies.
“You get the benefits of productivity gains from people spending less time in traffic and reduced congestion, as well as making the city a more attractive place for businesses to invest,” says Michelle Karavias, head of infrastructure research at BMI Research in New York City.
While China and India are leading the world in urban rail investment – China has as many as 70 metro projects currently under way, according to Becky P. Y. Loo, director of the Institute of Transport Studies at the University of Hong Kong – they are not alone.
Peru is building a 22-mile subway in its capital, Lima.
The project, estimated at $5.7 billion, will be funded by the government and a consortium of companies – an example of public-private partnership that Karavias says has become increasingly common as countries seek to save money on costly projects.
Saudi Arabia, meanwhile, has ambitious plans to build a six-line metro system stretching 110 miles in the capital Riyadh, making it the biggest subway project in the world, according to Siemens, which will supply the entire turnkey system for two driverless lines, including trains and signaling and communication equipment.